In the U.S. alone, approximately 37 million adults (more than 1 in 7) have chronic kidney disease (CKD), a heterogeneous condition characterized by a gradual, irreversible loss of kidney structure and function. Progression of CKD is associated with several serious complications, including mineral and bone disorders, anemia, and cardiovascular disease. As kidney function continues to decline, patients may develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and require dialysis or kidney transplantation.1
Anemia due to CKD
Anemia is a condition in which the body has a diminished oxygen-carrying capacity and delivery to the body’s tissues and organs. Both erythropoietin (EPO) and iron are essential components for the production of sufficient red blood cells and hemoglobin for adequate oxygen delivery and normal bodily functioning.2,3
As renal function progressively declines in CKD, iron deficiency and limited endogenous EPO production diminishes the ability of red blood cells to carry and deliver oxygen.
Approximately 15% of adult CKD patients in the U.S. are thought to be anemic, with increasing prevalence as the disease progresses.4 Anemia due to CKD poses a heavy clinical burden, including hospitalizations, cardiovascular comorbidities, and mortality.5 Learn more about anemia due to CKD and its clinical burden and treatment landscape and recent scientific advancement. For even more information, watch our video series.
Among the most prominent roles of the kidneys are the excretion of waste products and toxins, and regulation of extracellular volume and electrolyte concentrations. As kidney structure and function is gradually lost in CKD, the ability of the kidneys to maintain homeostasis of water, salts, and minerals becomes increasingly limited.
Hyperphosphatemia is a particularly prevalent complication of CKD in the later stages of the disease. It is associated with severe clinical outcomes, including tissue calcification, bone diseases, and secondary hyperparathyroidism, leading to cardiovascular disease and increased mortality.
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/kidneydisease/publications-resources/2019-national-facts.html. Accessed December 16, 2020.
2. Koury MJ, et al. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2015;1(7):394-410.
3. Goodnough LT, et al. Blood. 2010;116(23):4754-4761.
4. Stauffer ME, et al. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e84943.
5. Portoles J, et al. BMC Nephrology. 2013;14:2.
6. Goyal R, Jialal I. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2020.